The entranceway to the Red Square through the Resurrection GateRussian: Voskresenskie vorota or Воскресенские ворота from the side of Tverskaya streetRussian: ulitsa Tverskaya or улица Тверская and Manezhnaya SquareRussian: Manezhnaya ploshchad or Манежная площадь (or Manezh, Manege Square) is historically considered to be the front gate of the city. It is no exaggeration to say that any modern traveller to Moscow passes through this gate. The Resurrection Gate arch establishes a visual link between two other remarkable buildings – the State Historical MuseumRussian: Gosudarstvennyiy istoricheskiy muzey or Государственный исторический музей and the Museum of the War of 1812Russian: Muzey Otechestvennoy voyny 1812 goda or Музей Отечественной войны 1812 года, while the small chapel by the gate houses one of the most venerated icons – the Iveron Icon of the Mother of GodRussian: Iverskaya Ikona Bozhey Materi or Иверская Икона Божией Матери. Right in front of the gate there is the Kilometer Zero signRussian: znak "Nulevogo kilometra" or знак "Нулевого километра" – this is the centre of Moscow and the starting point for measuring all distances in Russia.
Historically, the Resurrection Gate was one of the gates in the Kitai-GorodRussian: Китай-город wall which was reputed to be the greatest fortification of ancient Moscow (sadly, it is mostly destroyed now) created by Italian architect Petroc Minor in the first half of the 16th century.
The construction of the Resurrection Gate was carried out in a few stages. In 1535, the first double arched gate was built. Later, a chapel was constructed between the two arches. In 1669, a replica of the miraculous Iveron Icon of the Mother of God, which had been brought from the Greek Athos, was transferred to the chapel. The icon is called Vratarnitsameaning ‘gate keeper’. It is thought to protect the entrance to the city. In former times, people in Moscow believed that before an important event you had to pray to the icon. Great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin is said to have come here to pray before his upcoming marriage.
The gate derives its name from the icon of the Resurrection which was placed on it in 1680. The gate has had many names throughout its history. For instance, the LvinyeRussian: Львиные (Lion) Gate (the lions given to Tsar Ivan the Terriblereigned from 1533 to 1584 by the Queen of England lived in the moat separating the NikolskayaRussian: Никольская and the corner ArsenalnayaRussian: Арсенальная towers of the Kremlin), the NeglinnyRussian: Neglinnye or Неглинные Gate (up to 1817 in front of the gate there was a bridge across the River NeglinkaRussian: reka Neglinka or река Неглинка), the BogoyavlenskieRussian: Богоявленские (Epiphany) Gate, the TroitskieRussian: Троицкие (Trinity) Gate, the TriumphalnyRussian: Триумфальные Gate, the KuretnyRussian: Куретные Gate, and the IverskyRussian: Иверские (Iberian) Gate.
Nearby, adjacent to the buildings of the Provincial BoardRussian: Gubernskoye pravlenie or Губернское правление and the Presence ChambersRussian: Prisutstvennye mesta or Присутственные места, there stood the notorious prison for bankrupt entrepreneurs known as ‘The PitRussian: Yama or Яма’. It is worth noting that the lender who decided the fate of his debtor was required to pay for the food for the new prisoner because the state budget did not allocate any funds for this purpose.
When the gate was rebuilt in 1680, it was surmounted with two towers crowned by tented roofs. According to researchers, the chambers inside the towers were used by tsars and tsarinas to observe various celebrations. At the end of the 18th century, Matvey Kazakov, a famous Moscow architect, rebuilt the chapel in stone. After the War of 1812war between the Russian Empire and Napoleonic France on the territory of Russia in 1812, the damaged decorations were restored by Pietro Gonzaga, who adorned the chapel with a large number of exquisite decorative elements.
Thus, the duo of the gate and the chapel lasted until the early 1930s. Then, in the course of the USSR anti-religious campaign, the Iveron Chapel was pulled down in 1929, followed in 1931 by the demolition of the Resurrection Gate alongside the larger part of the Kitai-Gorod wall of the Kremlin and many other outstanding architectural monuments. The latter was pulled down due to the state policy of widening urban roads and streets.
At present, the Resurrection Gate occupies its original place again. Large-scale archeological research began on the site in 1988. Its findings included the white-stone base of the Resurrection gate, numerous wooden medieval constructions as well as the first birchbark manuscript found in Moscow. In 1995, the gate and the chapel were rebuilt and the famous Iveron Icon of the Mother of God (replica of 1995) was placed in the Iveron chapel again.© 2016-2018 moscovery.com